The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus /

Discussions ranging from space technology, near-earth and solar system missions, to efforts to understand the large-scale structure of the cosmos.

Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on January 8th, 2019, 3:15 am 

bangstrom » January 7th, 2019, 2:26 am wrote:Atoms at 0-K are not totally devoid of kinetic energy
since they still maintain their internal motions and
structure and this extra bit of energy is known as
zero point energy (ZPE) or Zitterbewegung.


bangstrom » January 7th, 2019, 11:44 am wrote: The ZPE and the Kelvin temperature scale are two different things.


Zero-point energy in Classical and Quantum theories.
===
Zero-point energy (ZPE) is the difference between the lowest
possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have,
and the classical minimum energy of the system.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-point_energy

a)  quantum mechanical system
b)  classical mechanical system

Two different systems.
#
Unlike in classical mechanics, quantum systems constantly fluctuate
in their lowest energy state due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-point_energy

a) Atoms of ''classical mechanics'' at 0-K  (-273°C ) are totally devoid
of kinetic energy and cannot fluctuate or move.
b) Quantum particles at 0°KELVIN (-273°C ) have movements and vibrations .

Two different objects.
=====
Attachments
Zero-Point-Energy-and-Vacuum-Fluctuations-Effects.jpg
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby bangstrom on January 8th, 2019, 4:35 am 

"3. When it comes to associate the cold state of Kelvin temperature with force, scientific opinion is that cold temperatures are the opposite of energy and are considered to be non-usable. Furthermore, cold temperatures are identified as Entropy: meaning a negative force that works against energy rules of efficiency. In cross-reference, cold is the opposite of expansion: it causes contraction. The effects are: mass shrinks and the structure of molecular motions slow down. In turn, cold temperatures emit a negative force that affects an operational system, which becomes inefficient." Jagg

Cold is the absence of heat. In what "scientific opinion" do cold temperatures emit a negative force?
bangstrom
Member
 
Posts: 694
Joined: 18 Sep 2014


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on January 8th, 2019, 9:38 pm 

bangstrom » January 8th, 2019, 4:35 am wrote:"3.
Cold is the absence of heat.
In what "scientific opinion" do cold temperatures emit a negative force?

a) the cold state = 0°KELVIN (-273°C / -459°F) is absent of heat.
b) the cold state = 0°KELVIN (-273°C / -459°F) is packed with
'' negative virtual particles'' that can appear as real particles:
Casimir effect, Lamb shift, vacuum fluctuations.
====
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby bangstrom on January 9th, 2019, 3:15 pm 

Virtual particles are too fleeting in their existence to provide a usable source of energy and they add nothing to the Kelvin scale.
bangstrom
Member
 
Posts: 694
Joined: 18 Sep 2014


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on January 12th, 2019, 10:06 pm 

True Facts About Cosmology (or, Misconceptions Skewered)
Posted on January 12, 2019 by Sean Carroll

. . . some true facts about cosmology that might serve as a useful corrective.

http://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blo ... -skewered/
===
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on January 30th, 2019, 3:07 am 

Sunday, January 27, 2019
New Scientist creates a Crisis-Anticrisis Pair
==
“There are people who think that, using just the power of our minds,
we can understand what dark matter is, what quantum gravity is,”
says Arvanitaki.
“That’s not true. The only way forward is to have experiment
and theory move in unison.”

'' . . .  if you play by everybody else’s rules,
you will make the same mistakes.

If you want to make a difference, you must be willing to accept
that people ridicule you, criticize you, and shun you.
Turok wasn’t prepared for any of this.
It had not even crossed his mind. ''

Posted by Sabine Hossenfelder
http://backreaction.blogspot.com/2019/0 ... risis.html
======
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on April 8th, 2019, 7:39 am 

Emptiness and Space

Earth space is almost ''empty''
but it is a big theater stage on which the events take place

Atom's space  is almost ''empty''
But it is fulled with electric / nuclear force

Cosmic space is almost ''empty''
but it has enormous matter / stuff

Vacuum space  is almost ''empty''
but ''virtual particles'' exist there, which have possibility
to effect ''normal-matter''.
#
Don't ignore ''Emptiness''
Every emptiness has something important.
====
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby bangstrom on April 8th, 2019, 3:03 pm 

socrat44 » April 8th, 2019, 6:39 am wrote:
Don't ignore ''Emptiness''
Every emptiness has something important.
====

This is from Lao Tse’s Tao De Ching written in 500 BC and translated by Stephen Mitchell.
Chapter 11

"We join spokes together in a wheel,
but it is the center hole
that makes the wagon move. We shape clay into a pot,
but it is the emptiness inside
that holds whatever we want. We hammer wood for a house,
but it is the inner space
that makes it livable. We work with being,
but non-being is what we use."

https://terebess.hu/english/tao/mitchell.html
bangstrom
Member
 
Posts: 694
Joined: 18 Sep 2014


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on April 9th, 2019, 3:05 am 

bangstrom » April 8th, 2019, 3:03 pm wrote:
socrat44 » April 8th, 2019, 6:39 am wrote:
Don't ignore ''Emptiness''
Every emptiness has something important.
====

This is from Lao Tse’s Tao De Ching written in 500 BC and translated by Stephen Mitchell.
Chapter 11

"We join spokes together in a wheel,
but it is the center hole
that makes the wagon move. We shape clay into a pot,
but it is the emptiness inside
that holds whatever we want. We hammer wood for a house,
but it is the inner space
that makes it livable. We work with being,
but non-being is what we use."

https://terebess.hu/english/tao/mitchell.html


Yeah, Thank you . . . .
i forgot that the Old Master Lao Tzu explained
emptiness more concretely , observably, clearly
===
Attachments
Lao Tzu  Dao.jpg
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on April 12th, 2019, 4:03 am 

  Zero Vacuum's Quantum Particle
===
1 - According to the Theory of Ideal gas the
quantum particle has Boltzmann's molar-mass (k)
2 - According to the Charle’s law the molar-mass (k)
particle has a flat geometrical form.
3 - According to the Quantum Theory the quantum
particle has Dirac's negative energy ( -E=Mc^2)
4 - According to Einstein's  SRT the quantum
particle can fly with constant speed ( c=1 )
5 - According to the Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit
quantum particle has an angular momentum
====
Attachments
SPIN 1.jpg
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on April 12th, 2019, 10:51 am 

“ The problem of the exact description of vacuum, in my opinion,
is the basic problem now before physics. Really, if you can’t correctly
describe the vacuum, how it is possible to expect a correct description
of something more complex? “
/ Paul Dirac /
#
“The most fundamental question facing 21st century physics will be:
What is the vacuum? As quantum mechanics teaches us, with
its zero point energy this vacuum is not empty and the word
vacuum is a gross misnomer!”
/ Prof. Friedwardt Winterberg /
#
Book: The Fermi Solution,
''. . . : something seems wrong with our idea of the vacuum.
It is we who abhor a vacuum, who recoil from the stillness
of the void as from an open grave.''
/ by Hans Christian von Baeyer, page 37-38. /
========
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on April 13th, 2019, 10:08 am 

socrat44 » April 12th, 2019, 4:03 am wrote:  Zero Vacuum's Quantum Particle
===
1 - According to the Theory of Ideal gas the
quantum particle has Boltzmann's molar-mass (k)
2 - According to the Charle’s law the molar-mass (k)
particle has a flat geometrical form.
3 - According to the Quantum Theory the quantum
particle has Dirac's negative energy ( -E=Mc^2)
4 - According to Einstein's  SRT the quantum
particle can fly with constant speed ( c=1 )
5 - According to the Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit
quantum particle has an angular momentum
====

1 - Dirac's theory  has reference frame of vacuum
and therefore (-E=Mc^2)
2 - Einstein's SRT postulate has reference frame
of vacuum and therefore speed is ( c=1)
3 - Theory of Ideal gas has reference frame of vacuum
but theoretical quantum physics  ignores this framework.
========
Attachments
IDEA MISSING.jpg
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on April 14th, 2019, 6:11 am 

socrat44 » April 13th, 2019, 10:08 am wrote:
socrat44 » April 12th, 2019, 4:03 am wrote:  Zero Vacuum's Quantum Particle
===
1 - According to the Theory of Ideal gas the
quantum particle has Boltzmann's molar-mass (k)
2 - According to the Charle’s law the molar-mass (k)
particle has a flat geometrical form.
3 - According to the Quantum Theory the quantum
particle has Dirac's negative energy ( -E=Mc^2)
4 - According to Einstein's  SRT the quantum
particle can fly with constant speed ( c=1 )
5 - According to the Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit
quantum particle has an angular momentum
====

1 - Dirac's theory  has reference frame of vacuum
and therefore (-E=Mc^2)
2 - Einstein's SRT postulate has reference frame
of vacuum and therefore speed is ( c=1)
3 - Theory of Ideal gas has reference frame of vacuum
but theoretical quantum physics  ignores this framework.
========


The theory of ideal gas is not an ''abstract theory'' or
only ''useful as a simple approximation''
It is useful as Real theory about situation in the Vacuum.
The quantum particles have their source in the Vacuum.
The real particles appear from Vacuum.
(Casimir effect, Lamb shift, vacuum's fluctuation . . ..etc)
#
To understand itself, Quantum physics must be united
with Thermodynamics of Ideal gas
(this is a missed idea in modern physics)
========
Attachments
the missing puzzle.jpg
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby bangstrom on April 14th, 2019, 12:53 pm 

socrat44 » April 13th, 2019, 9:08 am wrote:
1 - Dirac's theory  has reference frame of vacuum
and therefore (-E=Mc^2)


I like to think of the vacuum as Einstein’s curved spacetime or “gravity” in other words where time keeps everything from happening at at once and space keeps everything from happening in the same place.

Maxwell suggested that the universe is a balance between equal amounts of positive and negative energy but he could never identify what might be the reservoir for negative energy. Pascual Jordan later speculated that gravity is negative energy and what we call positive energy is the sum total of both energy (heat, light, etc.) and matter. In that context, Dirac’s identification of the vacuum as negative energy (-E=Mc^2) makes sense with M being the total mass of the universe.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-energy_universe

Quote from wiki,

"Pascual Jordan first suggested that since the positive energy of a star's mass and the negative energy of its gravitational field together may have zero total energy, conservation of energy would not prevent a star being created by a quantum transition of the vacuum. George Gamow recounted putting this idea to Albert Einstein: "Einstein stopped in his tracks and, since we were crossing a street, several cars had to stop to avoid running us down".[3]
The zero-energy universe theory originated in 1973, when Edward Tryon proposed in the journal Nature that the universe emerged from a large-scale quantum fluctuation of vacuum energy, resulting in its positive mass-energy being exactly balanced by its negative gravitational potential energy.[4]”
bangstrom
Member
 
Posts: 694
Joined: 18 Sep 2014
DragonFly liked this post


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on April 15th, 2019, 1:59 am 

bangstrom » April 14th, 2019, 12:53 pm wrote:
socrat44 » April 13th, 2019, 9:08 am wrote:
1 - Dirac's theory  has reference frame of vacuum
and therefore (-E=Mc^2)

Dirac’s identification of the vacuum as negative energy (-E=Mc^2)
makes sense with M being the total mass of the universe.


  Sorry.
1 - Dirac saw ''vacuum sea'' as a universe space with holes
From these holes negative-virtual  energy quantum particles
(-E=Mc^2) appear that somehow can interact with real particles

2 - Dirac theory has nothing to do with gravity (total Mass) problems
=====
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on April 16th, 2019, 10:27 pm 

  Dark Energy = Cosmic Zero Vacuum
===
1 - Dark energy is an essential part of cosmology today
2 - Dark energy is just pure energy
3 - In the early state of universe's evolution Dark energy
was dominated
4 - Dark energy is not relative, it is constant structure / stuff . . .
5 - Dark energy permeates the universe
6 - Dark energy distribution is always smooth
7 - Dark energy does not become more dilute when
the universe expands
8 - Dark energy exists even if no actual particles or other
stuff is around
9 - Dark energy is not carried by particles or matter
10 - The density (cosmological constant) of Dark energy is very low
11 - The density of Dark energy is the same everywhere, remains
the same over time (it can be no denser in one region than another)
12 - Dark energy is very different from dark matter, which
collects into objects and will be denser in some place
than in others
#
My opinion
All these proportions have the Cosmic Zero Vacuum (T=0K)
=======
REFERENCE
Book: Dark matter and the Dinosaurs
by Lisa Randall
=====
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on April 21st, 2019, 6:22 am 

socrat44 » April 16th, 2019, 10:27 pm wrote:  Dark Energy = Cosmic Zero Vacuum
===
1 - Dark energy is an essential part of cosmology today
2 - Dark energy is just pure energy
3 - In the early state of universe's evolution Dark energy
was dominated
4 - Dark energy is not relative, it is constant structure / stuff . . .
5 - Dark energy permeates the universe
6 - Dark energy distribution is always smooth
7 - Dark energy does not become more dilute when
the universe expands
8 - Dark energy exists even if no actual particles or other
stuff is around
9 - Dark energy is not carried by particles or matter
10 - The density (cosmological constant) of Dark energy is very low
11 - The density of Dark energy is the same everywhere, remains
the same over time (it can be no denser in one region than another)
12 - Dark energy is very different from dark matter, which
collects into objects and will be denser in some place
than in others
#
My opinion
All these proportions have the Cosmic Zero Vacuum (T=0K)
=======
REFERENCE
Book: Dark matter and the Dinosaurs
by Lisa Randall
=====

   Another hidden scenario of Zero Vacuum
====
Book:  ''' Stephan Hawking, A life in science,''
/ by Michael White and John Gribbin./
#
''Together with Brandon Carter and Jim Bardeen, Hawking
wrote a paper, published in Communications in Mathematical
Physics , pointing out . . . . . the team commented,
'' In fact the effective temperature of a black hole is
absolute zero . . . .  No radiation could be emitted from the hole.''
    / page 156./
But later  (!) , . . using concept of entropy and
Heisenberg uncertainty principle and quantum fluctuations (!)
Hawking changed his mind and wrote that black hole can emit
  ( Hawking radiation )
#
So, in the beginning (according to calculations) the ''black hole''
had absolute zero temperature  T=0K  but  . . .  thanks to entropy,
HUP and quantum  fluctuations (Hawking radiations) was arisen.
In others words:
''black holes'' are micro- scheme of  absolute zero vacuum: T=0K
''black hole'' is only another name of the  ''true vacuum'' : T=0K
=========
P.S.
1 - A black hole has a temperature within a few
millionths of a degree above absolute zero: T=0K
/ Oxford. Dictionary./
2 - A stellar black hole of one solar mass has a Hawking
temperature of about 100 nanokelvins. This is far less
than the 2.7 K temperature of the cosmic microwave background
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole
3 - ''Previous Picture of the Day articles about black holes
suggested that the terminology used to describe
“gravitational point sources” is highly speculative: space/time,
singularities, and infinite density are abstract concepts,
precluding a realistic investigation into the nature of the Universe.''
/ Black hole theory contradicts itself, by Stephen Smith. Oct 12, 2011 /
========
Attachments
Wells.jpg
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby bangstrom on April 21st, 2019, 2:23 pm 

socrat44 » April 21st, 2019, 5:22 am wrote:
3 - ''Previous Picture of the Day articles about black holes
suggested that the terminology used to describe
“gravitational point sources” is highly speculative: space/time,
singularities, and infinite density are abstract concepts,
precluding a realistic investigation into the nature of the Universe.''
/ Black hole theory contradicts itself, by Stephen Smith. Oct 12, 2011 /
========

The “point source” singularity at the center of the black hole has never made sense to me. If gravity “curved spacetime” has collapsed into the point source at the theoretical center of the black hole, it raises the question of what kind of no-space, no-time and no-matter must be left behind between the central singularity and the event horizon. What sort of absolute nothingness would that be? And, if absolutely nothing “exists” between the event horizon and the singularity, then the singularity must be distributed throughout the entire interior volume of the black hole with nothing separating the singularity and the event horizon.

Some say a black hole is a bit of our own universe turned inside out where space becomes time and time becomes space at the mathematical event horizon. An object falling into a black hole by moving forward in our space becomes an object moving forward in the black hole’s time or something to that effect.

Our own universe throughout much of its evolution, if not to the present day, must have had a sufficient mass to volume ratio to qualify as a black hole. A closed universe is simply a black hole viewed from the inside since it contains enough gravitational mass to prevent even light from escaping.

I like to think of a black hole using the balloon analogy for the universe. A black hole is like a bit of the balloon that has been pinched off and twisted to form a small balloon on the side of the main body of the balloon. When we see a black hole, we see the twisted part of the balloon left behind but we don’t see the small, highly curved universe that lies beyond.

“The universe is a big place, perhaps the biggest.” ― Kurt Vonnegut
bangstrom
Member
 
Posts: 694
Joined: 18 Sep 2014


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on April 25th, 2019, 1:48 am 

socrat44 » April 21st, 2019, 6:22 am wrote:
socrat44 » April 16th, 2019, 10:27 pm wrote:  Dark Energy = Cosmic Zero Vacuum
===
1 - Dark energy is an essential part of cosmology today
2 - Dark energy is just pure energy
3 - In the early state of universe's evolution Dark energy
was dominated
4 - Dark energy is not relative, it is constant structure / stuff . . .
5 - Dark energy permeates the universe
6 - Dark energy distribution is always smooth
7 - Dark energy does not become more dilute when
the universe expands
8 - Dark energy exists even if no actual particles or other
stuff is around
9 - Dark energy is not carried by particles or matter
10 - The density (cosmological constant) of Dark energy is very low
11 - The density of Dark energy is the same everywhere, remains
the same over time (it can be no denser in one region than another)
12 - Dark energy is very different from dark matter, which
collects into objects and will be denser in some place
than in others
#
My opinion
All these proportions have the Cosmic Zero Vacuum (T=0K)
=======
REFERENCE
Book: Dark matter and the Dinosaurs
by Lisa Randall
=====

   Another hidden scenario of Zero Vacuum
====
Book:  ''' Stephan Hawking, A life in science,''
/ by Michael White and John Gribbin./
#
''Together with Brandon Carter and Jim Bardeen, Hawking
wrote a paper, published in Communications in Mathematical
Physics , pointing out . . . . . the team commented,
'' In fact the effective temperature of a black hole is
absolute zero . . . .  No radiation could be emitted from the hole.''
    / page 156./
But later  (!) , . . using concept of entropy and
Heisenberg uncertainty principle and quantum fluctuations (!)
Hawking changed his mind and wrote that black hole can emit
  ( Hawking radiation )
#
So, in the beginning (according to calculations) the ''black hole''
had absolute zero temperature  T=0K  but  . . .  thanks to entropy,
HUP and quantum  fluctuations (Hawking radiations) was arisen.
In others words:
''black holes'' are micro- scheme of  absolute zero vacuum: T=0K
''black hole'' is only another name of the  ''true vacuum'' : T=0K
=========
P.S.
1 - A black hole has a temperature within a few
millionths of a degree above absolute zero: T=0K
/ Oxford. Dictionary./
2 - A stellar black hole of one solar mass has a Hawking
temperature of about 100 nanokelvins. This is far less
than the 2.7 K temperature of the cosmic microwave background
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole
3 - ''Previous Picture of the Day articles about black holes
suggested that the terminology used to describe
“gravitational point sources” is highly speculative: space/time,
singularities, and infinite density are abstract concepts,
precluding a realistic investigation into the nature of the Universe.''
/ Black hole theory contradicts itself, by Stephen Smith. Oct 12, 2011 /
========

Dark Energy May Be Vacuum
Date:
January 16, 2007
Source:
University of Copenhagen
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2 ... 130456.htm
#
https://www.iflscience.com/space/dark-e ... rk-matter/
==============
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on June 12th, 2019, 8:15 pm 

CMBR - Origins
The universe began 13.8 billion years ago, and the CMBR
dates back to about 400,000 years after the Big Bang.
/ the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physics./
===
Going backward in time is possible to reconstruct two scenario.
Modern astrophysicists say:
According to cosmological calculations the universe began
13.8 billion years ago from very hot state and this fact
was attested by CMBR.
(in the future the CMBR would go down to zero and then . . . )
Alternative scenario.
Going backward in time from the CMBR the temperature
was dropped to zero. From zero (T=0K) the Universe was started.
Attestations:
a) according to Thermodynamics, ''Entropy'' would change
the equilibrium zero state.
b) according to Quantum Theory, quantum fluctuations
would destroyed the equilibrium zero state.
Conclusion
Sooner or later astrophysicists view would come
to alternative scenario ( T=0K )
=======
Attachments
CMBR.jpg
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on June 14th, 2019, 8:40 am 

“The laws of physics as we understand them make
it eminently plausible that our universe arose from nothing –
– no space, no time, no particles, nothing that we now know of.”
/ Lawrence Krauss /
http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20141106 ... ist-at-all
====
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on June 15th, 2019, 3:43 pm 

Doctrine of Creation
===
Creation is a process.
This process can be known by math / physical laws.
But before to know how this process is going, it needs
to know something about reference frame in which
this process is going. because to describe fish it needs
water and to describe animals it needs another
reference frame -- land. The reference frame has
great influence on physical process. Specific
reference frame is the common ground of all specific creations.
#
The creation began from simple to complex,
from micro-particles world to microworld.
Then it needs to know: in which reference
frame the micro-particles can exist.
#
Today we know -- micro-particles exist in CERN / LHC .reference frame.
========
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Re:   The Universe from Nothing: T=0K. / by Israel Socratus

Postby socrat44 on November 1st, 2019, 1:15 pm 

Outline of Zero Vacuum: T=0K
----
1 - The speed of light in the vacuum c=1
We cannot reach this speed, but it exist.
2 - Low Temperature Lab, Helsinki University of Technology.
"The record-low temperature was reached in a piece of
rhodium metal, which was cooled to 100 pK, or
0.000 000 000 1 degrees above the absolute zero.
The absolute zero is the limit of all temperatures,
-273.15 °C, a temperature one can never reach.
https://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/NehemieCange.shtml
We cannot reach T=0K, but we can understand it structure
#
1 - The thermodynamics of ''Ideal Gas'' explains the structure of T=0K
2 - In T=0K quantum particles in the state of Bose–Einstein condensate
3 - Quantum electrodynamics explains the Entropy of Bose–Einstein condensate
===
socrat44
Member
 
Posts: 400
Joined: 12 Dec 2015


Previous

Return to Astronomy & Cosmology

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 7 guests