DarkSEAL7 wrote:My question is, Is there any way to develop "more" glial cells in your brain, specifically area 39, in which to increase your cognitive ability; to think better, to remember better, etc..
DarkSEAL7 wrote:You didn't really answer the question. I said if they didn't reproduce more rapidly as a result of eating habits, thinking habits, whatever the case, if there is a way to 'help' then along... so to speak. For example, what foods are best for them, or does thinking alot, or studying hard help enhance them to think harder for later... idk i think you should get my gist.
DarkSEAL7 wrote:And actually you are incorrect; the quantity does matter. If glia are the libraries for information storage in the brain, and assuming humans have the highest intelligence, then lower life forms should have less glia.
DarkSEAL7 wrote:and for you paralith... HEre are some good sites to educate and broaden your understanding of the glial cell and their types....
http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... ought-what
DarkSEAL7 wrote:As stated in my source above ,
"The special type of cell that was in abundance in Area 39 of Einstein's brain was the glial cell. To Dr. Diamond, this was extremely significant.
DarkSEAL7 wrote:Alright, well i'm just going to ignore my instinct to retaliate in anger to your name-calling.
DarkSEAL7 wrote:And Biowizard, you say that glial cells serve no purpose in cognitive thinking. Well actually, i am listening and thinking about what these kind people have said, but it doesn't exactly match up with all the research iv'e done with the topic.
DarkSEAL7 wrote:As stated in my source above ,
Glial cells are very common in the brain, but they are, in effect, "housekeeping" cells, and not "thinking" cells. Their job is to support the metabolism of the "thinking" neurons.
Biowizard wrote:They cater to the neurons and support their growth with nourishment and growth factors, but they don't themselves carry any electric signals through the brain in the manner which neurons do to give rise to nervous functions and ultimately cognition.
DarkSEAL7 wrote:Einstein had only a measurable excess of "housekeeping" cells, and not a measurable excess of "thinking" cells. To Dr. Diamond, this meant Einstein's "thinking" cells in Area 39 needed a great deal of metabolic support. Why would they need so much support? Because they were doing a tremendous amount of work: a lot of hard thinking."
DarkSEAL7 wrote:What i'm saying is that 'without' the larger ratio of glial cells to neurons, the duller the intellect will be because of the lack of 'housing' (if that makes sense), the lack of support to the the actual 'thinking' cells called the neurons. So sorry, but you only confirmed what my source said, obviously you didn't read them through well enough.
DarkSEAL7 wrote:Based on the research and evidence provided therein Einstein's brain, The increased numbers of glial cells he had in area 39 of his brain WERE significant to his intelligence. If he hadn't been born with such-a-many, it is believed he wouldn't of had the spatial and visual capacity he did for mathematics and physics alike.
Autosomal recessive hypermyelinating neuropathy
M. Sabatelli1 Contact Information, T. Mignogna1, G. Lippi1, S. Servidei1, G. Manfredi1, E. Ricci1, E. Bertini2, M. Lo Monaco1 and P. Tonali1
Received: 17 August 1993 Revised: 20 October 1993 Accepted: 20 October 1993
Abstract We studied three patients from two kinships, affected by early onset hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with probable autosomal recessive inheritance (HMSN type III). Morphological studies of sural nerve biopsies revealed an abnormal myelin proliferation. Two adult patients with long-term follow up, lost ability to walk at 28 and 22 years and showed severe involvement of the cranial nerves. Our observations suggest that ldquohypermyelination neuropathyrdquo with early onset is a progressive disease with poor long-term prognosis. In one kinship the occurrence of the disease in two sibs of both sexes but not in parents, is consistent with an autosomal recessive inheritance. Familial cases of hypermyelination neuropathy have not been described in previous reports. Morphological aspects of this condition are compared with other forms of hypermyelination neuropathy.
Evidence from comparative studies of gene expression and evolution suggest that human neocortical neurons may be characterized by unusually high levels of energy metabolism. The current study examined whether there is a disproportionate increase in glial cell density in the human frontal cortex in comparison with other anthropoid primate species (New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and hominoids) to support greater metabolic demands. Among 18 species of anthropoids, humans displayed the greatest departure from allometric scaling expectations for the density of glia relative to neurons in layer II/III of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (area 9L). However, the human glia-neuron ratio in this prefrontal region did not differ significantly from allometric predictions based on brain size. Further analyses of glia-neuron ratios across frontal areas 4, 9L, 32, and 44 in a sample of humans, chimpanzees, and macaque monkeys showed that regions involved in specialized human cognitive functions, such as "theory of mind" (area 32) and language (area 44) have not evolved differentially higher requirements for metabolic support. Taken together, these findings suggest that greater metabolic consumption of human neocortical neurons relates to the energetic costs of maintaining expansive dendritic arbors and long-range projecting axons in the context of an enlarged brain.
DarkSEAL7 wrote:So i guess the answer to that would be no? Because we are born with what we are born with, and their is no way to better the efficiency of those astrocytes (Glial cells)?
Paralith wrote:neuro, could you recommend any good review papers about glial cells and their functions?
Since the number of synapses increases faster than the number of neurons in larger brains, this affiliation of glia with the multitude of neural connection points may help explain... For example, in large brains such as the human brain... there may be as many as 1.4 astrocytes for each neuron, up from 0.33 in the rodent cortex (Nedergaard et al. 2003). Even that ratio, however, is still a long way from the myth of 10 times more glia than neurons, in any species.
wolfhnd wrote:A quick and dirty response for those who didn't follow my links :-)Since the number of synapses increases faster than the number of neurons in larger brains, this affiliation of glia with the multitude of neural connection points may help explain... For example, in large brains such as the human brain... there may be as many as 1.4 astrocytes for each neuron, up from 0.33 in the rodent cortex (Nedergaard et al. 2003). Even that ratio, however, is still a long way from the myth of 10 times more glia than neurons, in any species.
What’s so special about the human brain? It turns out that we’re no better endowed between the ears than you would expect for a primate of our size
Then there are the glial cells. For years considered mere support cells in the brain, glia have recently been recognized for their important role in transmitting signals (Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol 6, p 626). A study of Einstein’s brain revealed that he had a higher glia-to-neuron ratio than the dead males doctors used as controls. This fits with a growing body of work suggesting that this ratio is associated with intelligence differences between species (Nature Neuroscience, vol 10, p 331). However, it is unclear how glial cells influence intelligence. What’s more, despite the widely held assumption that humans have a glia-to-neuron ratio of 10:1, Herculano-Houzel’s study found it to be more like 1:1.
wolfhnd wrote:I believe the point would be that size and number of neurons do not correlate to differences in intelligence directly.
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