Aggressive Behavior

Discussions on behavioral ecology, evolutionary psychology, neurology, endocrinology, game theory, etc.

Aggressive Behavior

Postby asocialnorm on December 13th, 2010, 4:52 pm 

Every day I come across troubling news about aggressive behaviour that some humans display. In particular, I am referring to child abbuse, murder, rape, etc. I am wondering; is there a particular gene (not sure if gene/hormone is the correct word here) that distinguishes Person A (bully, rapist, murdered, etc.) from Person B (average aggression?). Do people who fit in Person A category have a higher level of compound X versus someone we'd classify as 'normal'?
asocialnorm
 


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby wolfhnd on December 13th, 2010, 5:03 pm 

Are there any apes who do not display agrressive behavior? Aggression is "normal" so is deviant behavior that individuals may have a propensity for as a result of socialization of genetic factors. What is admormal is the idividual isolation and anonymity that the culture provides resulting in those behaviors going unchecked.
wolfhnd
 


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby Paralith on December 13th, 2010, 6:55 pm 

wolfhnd is pretty much correct that aggression is more the rule than the exception in social animals. After all, who is going to want and be competing for the same things you are? Members of your same species, especially those members that are in the same place as you are. They eat the same food, live in the same places, and are after the same mates. When there's not enough to go around, aggression is a pretty typical method for getting what you want.

But, there is variation between individuals in how often they act aggressively, and how intense their aggression is, even in other animals. But figuring out what causes that variation is very, very difficult. Aggressiveness is a highly complex trait that no doubt has a great deal of contributing factors; many different genetic ones, many different environmental/cultural ones. Even identifying what's "normal" in ways that are clear and easy to measure is a very difficult problem to solve.

If you look, you will find studies suggesting that this or that gene promotes particularly aggressive behavior. But you have to approach these studies cautiously. Usually what they've done is find a lot of people with that gene, and a lot of people without it, and compare the average incidence of aggression (or some other proxy measure), and find that the average may be somewhat higher in the group with the gene. But even in that group there will be a very wide variety of aggressive behavior, much of it overlapping with the group that doesn't have the gene. The same thing can be said for any analysis of any single possible contributing factor, even environmental ones, such as whether or not you yourself were abused as a child. This certainly increases the chances that you'll be aggressive yourself when you grow up, but it's by no means a guarantee.

It's a very big and complex picture, and you won't get a good grip on it by focusing on this particular gene or that particular hormone.
User avatar
Paralith
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 3029
Joined: 04 Jan 2008
Blog: View Blog (2)


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby asocialnorm on December 14th, 2010, 12:43 pm 

I was hesitant to use the word 'normal' because I agree with you both on this.
The reason I asked the question has something to do with the 'insanity defense' in the criminal court that is based on evaluations by forensic professionals that concur the guilty party is not really guilty because they are not mentally sane or vise versa.

So I was wondering if there are specific traits/genes forensic professionals identify in cases involving insanity pleas. And how certain they are of their decisions. At what level does the court say "ok, this person is clinically insane and needs help" vs. "ok, this person is just a maniac and needs to be jailed".

Would you classify the "Joker" from Batman comics as a clinically insane person who deserves to be treated in a mental asylum and then freed/pardoned once he shows signs of improvement OR should he be sent to jail without option of pardon.
asocialnorm
 


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby Dryson on January 27th, 2011, 7:30 am 

The difference between the animal kingdom and humans is that humans have the ability to think before acting as there are laws that protect the person from an aggressive person. In the wild there are no such laws and penalties. In the wild is is either be aggressive or be killed.

Those humans who are aggressive ARE ALWAYS incited to violence by another human who may feel insuperior to the person because of their intelligence which would put the person above the herd mentality that most humans have been programmed with through various forms of Darwinsim.

Rape is an uncalled act of total control over a person and can be likened to a gorilla wanting to control the entire region in which he roams. The rapist or liar will rape and lie about the person in an attempt to force them to change their mind about something as well as trying to reign control over them absolutely. These types of people are complete sociopaths as they think highly of theirself over another because of their pay or status within the company. But most of the time these types of employees or regular people will be so controlled by another that they will do anything to controll someone else who is free of the control that is holding them down and forcing them to be or think like another wants them to be.
Dryson
 


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby Paralith on January 27th, 2011, 12:43 pm 

Dryson wrote:Those humans who are aggressive ARE ALWAYS incited to violence by another human who may feel insuperior to the person because of their intelligence which would put the person above the herd mentality that most humans have been programmed with through various forms of Darwinsim.


I'm sorry, but I don't think this is a statement you can make as an absolute fact. What about people reacting in self defense? What about sociopaths who not only don't care that they're hurting other people but don't particularly care what anybody else thinks of them either? What about people who join the military and go to war because they feel they are protecting and serving their country?

Especially if you are referring to aggressive behavior that evolved via natural selection, aggression is most often used in the context of competition. Competing for mates, for food, for land. In this case you're not becoming aggressive because someone made you feel inferior, but because someone has or wants the same thing that you have or want.

Edit: I just noticed that you used the word "insuperior." That seems to be a mish-mosh of inferior and superior. What do you mean by that?
User avatar
Paralith
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 3029
Joined: 04 Jan 2008
Blog: View Blog (2)


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby Paralith on January 27th, 2011, 1:02 pm 

asocialnorm wrote:I was hesitant to use the word 'normal' because I agree with you both on this.
The reason I asked the question has something to do with the 'insanity defense' in the criminal court that is based on evaluations by forensic professionals that concur the guilty party is not really guilty because they are not mentally sane or vise versa.

So I was wondering if there are specific traits/genes forensic professionals identify in cases involving insanity pleas. And how certain they are of their decisions. At what level does the court say "ok, this person is clinically insane and needs help" vs. "ok, this person is just a maniac and needs to be jailed".

Would you classify the "Joker" from Batman comics as a clinically insane person who deserves to be treated in a mental asylum and then freed/pardoned once he shows signs of improvement OR should he be sent to jail without option of pardon.


I'm sorry asocialnorm, I just noticed that I never responded to this post of yours.

I know very little about insanity pleas in criminal courts, and what level of evidenciary support is required to make one go through. If the decision rests primarily with the jury then I would imagine that peoples' understanding and beliefs about aggression would play a large role in how these insanity pleas go down, which is why public education about complex issues like these is very important.

Aside from courts, objectively determining if someone is clinically insane can probably be done fairly reliably by a professional psychiatrist. That's whose opinion I would ask; I would not necessarily care to know if this person had any genes or hormonal imbalances that could potentially affect their aggressive behavior. What matters is how they are actually acting and what they actually believe - the actual outcome of their genes and their environment, their actual phenotype. I would only blame physiological conditions if they were truly extreme and inarguable, like a gigantic brain tumor drowning out your entire moral center, or something of that nature.

And as to your Joker question, lol, I think Batman universe canon has it that he is just batshit bonkers, and there is no help for him. In the real world I'm sure he would get locked up for good. =)
User avatar
Paralith
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 3029
Joined: 04 Jan 2008
Blog: View Blog (2)


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby adro on January 27th, 2011, 8:23 pm 

Excessive Testosterone, HGH, and both high and low amounts of TSH are often associated with aggression. Specifically rage. i.e. roid rage.

There is a drug, an aresoled hallucinogen called Quniucldynl Benzolate. QNB that acts as most hallucinogens do by flooding the brain with 5-HTAch and D2-5 in various synaptic sights. The effects of this drug classify it as a Weapon Of Mass Destruction, because it basically causes humans to act like aggressive apes for 48 hours. However, D2-5 and 5-HT are chemicals that usually do the opposite to peoples aggression. .
adro
 


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby 0101 on February 22nd, 2011, 3:32 pm 

asocialnorm wrote:Every day I come across troubling news about aggressive behaviour that some humans display. In particular, I am referring to child abbuse, murder, rape, etc. I am wondering; is there a particular gene (not sure if gene/hormone is the correct word here) that distinguishes Person A (bully, rapist, murdered, etc.) from Person B (average aggression?). Do people who fit in Person A category have a higher level of compound X versus someone we'd classify as 'normal'?


Higher testosterone levels = more aggression.

Higher dopamine levels = more aggression.

Higher prolactin = more aggression.
Last edited by 0101 on February 22nd, 2011, 3:33 pm, edited 1 time in total.
0101
 


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby Paralith on February 22nd, 2011, 3:39 pm 

Higher prolactin? Um, source please. Prolactin is intimately involved in nursing and milk let down and generally promotes familial bonding from what I understand.

In addition, the role of testosterone in aggression is a little bit more subtle than just, more T more aggression. Peaks in testosterone, relative to your baseline level, seem to prime males to be ready to compete or be aggressive on short notice, but will not by itself incite a sudden rage. There needs to be an additional stressor to really set off the aggression.
User avatar
Paralith
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 3029
Joined: 04 Jan 2008
Blog: View Blog (2)


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby 0101 on February 22nd, 2011, 4:44 pm 

Paralith wrote:Higher prolactin? Um, source please. Prolactin is intimately involved in nursing and milk let down and generally promotes familial bonding from what I understand.


Oh dear, I made a mistake (just woke up). LOWER prolactin leads to HIGHER aggression by INCREASING testosterone. My bad. Here:

http://www.nature.com/jhh/journal/v16/n ... 1493a.html (fifth paragraph from the introduction: "Increased levels of prolactin may also decrease nitric oxide and testosterone levels with a consequent influence on blood pressure, [and vice-versa].33,34"

The role of dopamine is that it inhibits the release of prolactin from the pituitary, which increases testosterone levels which increases aggression or aggression susceptibility. I think dopamine may also have independent effects though:

"'It is well known that dopamine is produced in response to rewarding stimuli such as food, sex and drugs of abuse,' Maria Couppis, who conducted the study as her doctoral thesis at Vanderbilt, said. 'What we have now found is that it also serves as positive reinforcement for aggression.'" (http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/94023.php)

Paralith wrote:In addition, the role of testosterone in aggression is a little bit more subtle than just, more T more aggression. Peaks in testosterone, relative to your baseline level, seem to prime males to be ready to compete or be aggressive on short notice, but will not by itself incite a sudden rage. There needs to be an additional stressor to really set off the aggression.


I agree. The OP was only asking for part of the equation though:

asocialnorm wrote:Do people who fit in Person A category have a higher level of compound X versus someone we'd classify as 'normal'?
0101
 


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby Paralith on February 22nd, 2011, 4:58 pm 

Re: prolactin - oh good, glad it was just a typo. But if the relationship is through testosterone, then that raises the same issues I mentioned with testosterone.

Re: dopamine - the study described makes me a little reluctant to accept a simple relationship between dopamine and aggression. Especially considering the context. If, after the aggressive interaction, the intruder mouse was then removed, it's possible that the resident mouse thought he had won the fight, that he had successfully declared his dominance over that territory and that female. And that would certainly trigger a dopamine response. So is the dopamine being released in response to aggression, or in response to successfully securing his reproductive future? I'd like to know what happens if, after the aggressive interaction, the resident male is the one who is removed, and his female is given to the intruder.

Re: the OP, I still think it's important to note that having higher testosterone isn't a guaranteed way to predict that someone is going to commit a violent crime. Consider facts like, men in western industrialized societies have higher T levels for most of their lives than do men in small scale societies like hunter gatherers and traditional horticulturalists. Clearly not every man in the US is doomed to become criminally violent at some point in his life.
User avatar
Paralith
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 3029
Joined: 04 Jan 2008
Blog: View Blog (2)


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby 0101 on February 22nd, 2011, 6:33 pm 

Paralith wrote:Re: prolactin - oh good, glad it was just a typo. But if the relationship is through testosterone, then that raises the same issues I mentioned with testosterone.


It isn't a perfect relationship. I agree though that it would be more accurate to say (because it is not a perfect relationship) that higher testosterone levels increase the susceptibility to aggression or likelihood to aggress. Also note, however, that aggression can be expressed in many ways, which need not be violent. So if we manipulated testosterone levels, for example, and found that Ss with higher T levels didn't suddenly start killing people...well, ya, but then the question would be: but are they aggressing or acting more aggressive?

My guess is that there is some kind of biology-environment interaction where high T levels increase aggression susceptibility, which increases the likelihood that environmental stimuli, previously nonthreatening or non-evoking, comes to elicit moderate levels of aggression in the individual with high T levels, who in turn overreacts and influences the environment negatively (conflict breeds conflict), which in turn loops back to aggravate the already susceptible aggressor and so on.

Paralith wrote:Re: dopamine - the study described makes me a little reluctant to accept a simple relationship between dopamine and aggression. Especially considering the context. If, after the aggressive interaction, the intruder mouse was then removed, it's possible that the resident mouse thought he had won the fight, that he had successfully declared his dominance over that territory and that female. And that would certainly trigger a dopamine response. So is the dopamine being released in response to aggression, or in response to successfully securing his reproductive future? I'd like to know what happens if, after the aggressive interaction, the resident male is the one who is removed, and his female is given to the intruder.


Good criticism. I didn't think of that. I know of some other studies, though, that have found the same relationship. I'll look through them (to make sure they controlled for that), and will post them later if you'd like.

Paralith wrote:Re: the OP, I still think it's important to note that having higher testosterone isn't a guaranteed way to predict that someone is going to commit a violent crime.


Agreed. In terms of a diathesis-stress model of aggression, testosterone would be the diathesis.

Paralith wrote:Consider facts like, men in western industrialized societies have higher T levels for most of their lives than do men in small scale societies like hunter gatherers and traditional horticulturalists. Clearly not every man in the US is doomed to become criminally violent at some point in his life.


Men in western industrialized societies are also more aggressive than men in hunter gatherer and traditional horticulturalist societies... http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=& ... on&f=false (page 6, second paragraph; ignore what the authors propose regarding other causes, it's the cross-cultural findings that are important for our purposes; note: I'm conflating 'aggression' and 'war' in this case - the authors are too it seems - so I'm operationalizing 'aggression' as 'frequency of war'; if you continue to read, you'll find other measures of aggression, and similar findings)
0101
 


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby Paralith on February 22nd, 2011, 6:51 pm 

All very good points. Coming from an evolutionary background, I always try to approach these questions in terms of their function for the organism - testosterone is a hormone that is important in sex differentiation, both in physiology and behavior - and sexes differentiate the most when it comes to mating behavior. It's been fairly well documented in several bird species with defined mating seasons, that testosterone levels have marked rises during those periods. Testosterone is not simply about becoming a violent roid-rage monster; it's about priming and preparing your body and mind for important behaviors. Aggression is often part of the equation if you're talking about fighting for mates or mating territory, but that's not the be-all and end-all of testosterone. All too often I think people without much familiarity with hormone research think of it one dimensionally. Thus my insistence on pointing out the more subtle points.

We could probably get into a long discussion about violence in industrialized versus hunter gatherer societies. There are many, many differences between these two groups other than the average base-line testosterone level, and I have no doubt that there are many, many different factors which influence rates of war and criminal violence - population density, extra-somatic wealth, social stratification, etc etc etc. Among all those factors, how much of a role does testosterone itself play? A very difficult question to answer, and I wouldn't want to jump to conclusions. But not every man with elevated lifetime T compared to a hunter-gatherer becomes personally involved in criminally violent behavior. In fact, I'm sure most men do not. Again, this is just me trying to emphasize caution in using T levels as a clear indicator of aggression.

I am glad you brought it up. This is a good conversation to have.
User avatar
Paralith
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 3029
Joined: 04 Jan 2008
Blog: View Blog (2)


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby 0101 on February 22nd, 2011, 7:19 pm 

Paralith wrote:All very good points. Coming from an evolutionary background, I always try to approach these questions in terms of their function for the organism - testosterone is a hormone that is important in sex differentiation, both in physiology and behavior - and sexes differentiate the most when it comes to mating behavior. It's been fairly well documented in several bird species with defined mating seasons, that testosterone levels have marked rises during those periods. Testosterone is not simply about becoming a violent roid-rage monster; it's about priming and preparing your body and mind for important behaviors. Aggression is often part of the equation if you're talking about fighting for mates or mating territory, but that's not the be-all and end-all of testosterone. All too often I think people without much familiarity with hormone research think of it one dimensionally. Thus my insistence on pointing out the more subtle points.


True, but we are talking about testosterone in the context of aggression or violence here, so my focus on the connection between T levels and aggression/violence is justified. Certainly, though, T is implicated in a whole raft of important behaviours, many of which I think are understudied these days.

Paralith wrote:We could probably get into a long discussion about violence in industrialized versus hunter gatherer societies. There are many, many differences between these two groups other than the average base-line testosterone level, and I have no doubt that there are many, many different factors which influence rates of war and criminal violence - population density, extra-somatic wealth, social stratification, etc etc etc. Among all those factors, how much of a role does testosterone itself play? A very difficult question to answer, and I wouldn't want to jump to conclusions. But not every man with elevated lifetime T compared to a hunter-gatherer becomes personally involved in criminally violent behavior. In fact, I'm sure most men do not. Again, this is just me trying to emphasize caution in using T levels as a clear indicator of aggression.


Personally, I didn't want to take it to the group level - too many other factors to consider. My argument is simply that there are important compounds that, if they reach certain levels in the body, predispose individuals to aggression and violence.
Last edited by 0101 on February 22nd, 2011, 7:37 pm, edited 2 times in total.
0101
 


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby Paralith on February 22nd, 2011, 7:31 pm 

0101 wrote:Personally, I didn't want to take it to the group level - too many other factors to consider. My argument is simply that there are important compounds that, if they reach certain levels in the body, predispose individuals to aggression and violence.


Well, I think in this case, you can't exactly extract the individual from the group. If we're talking about comparing a random man who grew up in North America to a random man who grew up among the !Kung in Africa, all those differences that make their societies distinct is what makes their backgrounds and their experiences distinct, and this is to not even mention all the potential genetic variation that might exist between them. Yes, testosterone is one component of aggressive behavior in humans. But one component out of how many? Out of all those components, what percentage is contributed by testosterone? Indeed, is it wise to consider any single component on its own when assessing the potential for violence in one man? In any group of men?
User avatar
Paralith
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 3029
Joined: 04 Jan 2008
Blog: View Blog (2)


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby 0101 on February 22nd, 2011, 9:06 pm 

Paralith wrote:
0101 wrote:Personally, I didn't want to take it to the group level - too many other factors to consider. My argument is simply that there are important compounds that, if they reach certain levels in the body, predispose individuals to aggression and violence.


Well, I think in this case, you can't exactly extract the individual from the group. If we're talking about comparing a random man who grew up in North America to a random man who grew up among the !Kung in Africa, all those differences that make their societies distinct is what makes their backgrounds and their experiences distinct, and this is to not even mention all the potential genetic variation that might exist between them. Yes, testosterone is one component of aggressive behavior in humans. But one component out of how many? Out of all those components, what percentage is contributed by testosterone? Indeed, is it wise to consider any single component on its own when assessing the potential for violence in one man? In any group of men?


Testosterone is important among the compounds (the ones that have been studied). This is a statement at the individual level. Yes, there are other components or factors (that are not compounds) which also contribute to aggression and violence (ex. social, cultural), but I have excluded them from my argument because it is difficult to assess the relative contribution of factors that are categorically different--hormonal and social, for example. I am merely saying that testosterone, in comparison to the other compounds that have been studied, is relatively important in terms of the contribution it makes to aggression and aggression susceptibility.

Note, that genetic variation, excluding variation which manifests as temperamental (inborn personality) differences, would fall into the hormone category for our purposes, manifesting as testosterone. You follow? That is, factors which contribute through testosterone, and not independently or directly themselves, to aggression or aggression susceptibility are not "other" factors. I have, appropriately, collapsed their contribution, as compounds, into the category of "hormone", specifically testosterone. In other words, when I say testosterone is an important compound that predisposes individuals to aggression and violence, I am collapsing genetic and other "compound" factors (i.e. biological compounds, not abstract social or cultural factors) into the category and compound "hormone" because each of these other "compound" factors make their contribution through testosterone--that is, testosterone is the significant proximal "compound" factor, and high levels of it are the result of many other contributing compound factors, like genetics. That is, genetics and other biological factors (excluding, maybe, temperament, although temperament is arguable very hormonally based--think about it) collectively contribute to and make their contribution through testosterone levels without making any direct contribution themselves, hence testosterone is one of the most important (studies show so far).

More succinctly put:

Genetic variation/other biological factors/compounds = hormonal variation

hormonal variation = variation in aggression susceptibility (everything else constant)

Conclusion: in comparison to the other compounds (studied so far), testosterone makes a significant, if not the most significant, contribution to aggression susceptibility
0101
 


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby Paralith on February 22nd, 2011, 9:31 pm 

Yes, many other contributing factors will act through testosterone. That is a very good point. Even given that distinction, I feel that there are still many other distinct, substantial, contributing factors that will determine how any one individual man will react in any given situation. There are many other hormones and neurotransmitters that contribute to your behavior, some of which are effected by T, some of which effect T, some of which do both in various positive or negative feedback loops. Temperamental differences that are caused both by genetic variation and variation in experience, both social (into which culture will have its impact) and physiological, will effect baseline T, the amount and cause of T spikes, and a man's reactivity in certain situations even given the same T level. And after all, what is the suspected cause of such high lifetime baseline T in western men? Simply nutrition. Maintaining high levels of testosterone is energetically expensive. Western men aren't all amped up on T because of some systemic genetic difference between them and hunter-gatherers.

We can most certainly find average differences in T between groups of men that are delineated by various indicators of aggression, like criminal record. I'm not arguing that. But asocialnorm's OP asked, can I distinguish the raping murderers from the average guys who might throw a punch if they're pissed off, based on one particular gene or compound? You could assign likelihoods based on T levels, sure. But to know for certain? To get a high enough likelihood that it would justify legal action before any actual wrong-doing has been done? Based on one single indicator? No. Not even testosterone.
User avatar
Paralith
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 3029
Joined: 04 Jan 2008
Blog: View Blog (2)


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby newyear on February 28th, 2011, 12:15 pm 

Paralith, I am glad you have brought this post down to earth. Even if T was found to be higher in cases of extreme agressive behaviour it would be an interesting fact. However, if it was found that others with high T and were not showing this type of behaviour then it would be nothing more than an anecdote.

I don't know, but I can imagine that there are some groups that would have a higher T level than others. For example, fire fighters, police, the armed forces, etc., come to mind. Perhaps low T levels could be an indication of a sexual leaning.

Agressive behaviour may be cause by the hardware, that is physical flaws (cross wiring, etc.), hormone levels and other biological reasons. However, rape and murder may be caused more often by psychological reasons than physical ones. I guess anyone with enough resourses could find a professional that could certify that an agressor is temporarily insane. Is there any one of us that could say this isn't true when applied to oneself? OK, I am not suggesting that we are all rapists, but how often do we say, "why did I do that". It may just be kicking the cat or being rude to a shop assistant, for no seemingly apparent reason. Aren't we more alike to Hannibal Lecter than the Joker?
newyear
 


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby Paralith on February 28th, 2011, 4:29 pm 

Thanks for the reply, newyear. But I wouldn't worry about being akin to Hannibal Lecter, if I were you. The very fact that the possibility worries you speaks to the fact that you are certainly not criminally sociopathic, as serial killers and comic book villains are wont to be. We all have grumpy days and bad moments and sometimes certain other people just grate on us. Though it's very difficult to exactly establish what's "normal" and what isn't, I think it's safe to say that being rude to a shop assistant is definitely normal compared to being a serial raping murderer.

On the subject of T, I highly recommend this review article on research on testosterone and the role it plays in human behavior:

Testosterone and human aggression: an evaluation of the challenge hypothesis

I wish I could give a more detailed summary but I don't really have the time - but for anyone interested in getting a better understanding of the role of testosterone in human behavior and what we know about it, this is a worthwhile read. As I mentioned before, in general T is a moderator of behavior that is relevant to reproduction, which is not just aggression but also mating. Many of the studies discussed in this paper show an increase in T in response to situations and challenges that are relevant to these behaviors; T rises in men during sports competitions, or while just watching sports competitions with their favorite teams, and in response to sexual stimulation, or even the possibility of an upcoming mating opportunity. These studies often also show a moderating effect of different social influences, such as religion or having a "culture of honor" where men are expected to respond to insults with aggression. And, once men marry and especially once they have children, their T levels drop. Different behaviors are required for the task of parenting than are required for the task of acquiring and defending mates.
User avatar
Paralith
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 3029
Joined: 04 Jan 2008
Blog: View Blog (2)


Re: Aggressive Behavior

Postby newyear on March 1st, 2011, 6:31 am 

But I wouldn't worry about being akin to Hannibal Lecter, if I were you.


That's a great weight off my back, Paralith. Although I was just using the reference to HL as an example.

I haven't read the link yet, but it shall be the first thing on my list when I have time available.
newyear
 



Return to Behavioral Science

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 2 guests

cron